Terpenes And Cannabis:

Terpenes are aromatic molecules found in plant resins.

There are thousands of terpenes found in the plant kingdom, and more than one hundred compounds found in cannabis alone.

As a cannabis plant matures from fertility to senescence, the resins containing terpenes change in composition and viscosity. Cannabis terpenes are typically divided into two chemical classifications, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, the former being more volatile.

Beta-Myrcene is the monoterpene that is most commonly produced in cannabis.
The words terpene and terpenoid are becoming more and more interchangeable in the industry, although the two represent different chemical classifications. Terpenes are various sized, aromatic hydrocarbons that can be found in plant resins, whereas terpenoids are terpenes with the addition of a functional group such as alcohols, ketones, and esters.

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Importance of terpenes

Terpenes account for the vast array of smells and flavors in cannabis flowers and extracts, and provide the notable aromas of cannabis varieties.

Some of the medical and physiological benefits found in cannabis have been attributed to terpenes.

Genetic and environmental factors, as well as drying and curing processes, determine the types and levels of terpenes present in usable cannabis.

It is in the process of the drying and curing that terpenes are oxidized and denatured to form terpenoids.

Our Lab Tests Cannabis & Hemp for 42 Terpenes

Analyses included in terpene profile include the following:

alpha-Bisabolol
Borneol*
Camphene
Camphor*
3-Carene
beta-Caryophyllene
Caryophyllene Oxide
alpha-Cedrene
Cedrol
Endo-Fenchyl alcohol

Eucalyptol
Fenchone*
Geraniol
Geranyl acetate
Guaiol
Hexahydrothymol (Menthol)
alpha-Humulene
Isoborneol
Isopulegol
Limonene

Linalool
p-Mentha-1,5-diene (alpha-Phellandrene)
beta-Myrcene
Nerol
cis-Nerolidol
trans-Nerolidol
Ocimene isomer I
Ocimene isomer II
alpha-Pinene
beta-Pinene

Pulegone
Sabinene
Sabinene Hydrate
alpha-Terpinene
gamma-Terpinene
A-Terpineol
B/Y-Terpineol
Terpinolene
Valencene

β-Myrcene

Myrcene is a significant component and essential oil of several plants, including bay, ylang-ylang, wild thyme, parsley, cardamom, mangoes, and hops. The South American Jamun (Java Plum) plant carries high levels of Myrcene in all its components.

Linalool

Research has shown Linalool to reduce anxiety and depression as well as boost the resiliency of the immune system against stress. Linalool is also thought to assist with relaxation.

D-Limonene

Limonene helps improve absorption of other terpenes and chemicals by way of the skin, mucous membranes, and digestive tract.

α-Pinene

Pine needles have been used by Native Americans for everything from hair care to the treatment of a bad cough. The pinene terpene was also used in ancient Chinese medicine to help reduce inflammation. Pinene can be found in coniferous trees, most notably pine, as well as in eucalyptus, sage, rosemary and frankincense.

α-Terpineol

Terpineol can be found in over 150 plants. It is said to help improve cognitive functions, regulate the immune system, and assist with sleep.

Borneol

Borneol has a smell similar to that of camphor, thyme, and cinnamon. This terpene has been widely used by several generations of Chinese medical practitioners. As a result, it is extremely popular in adjuvant therapy or treatment for various conditions, as it possesses wonderful transdermal delivery capability, it can also be used as a natural insect repellent.

Eucalyptol

Eucalyptol is the primary element in eucalyptus.  Cardamom and lavender are known to have eucalyptol as well.

β-Caryophyllene

Caryophyllene is the principal terpene contributing to the spiciness of black pepper.

Humulene

Humulene has been used in Chinese medicine for thousands of years for a wide variety of applications such as treating menstrual difficulties and insomnia. Unlike other terpenes that may assist in promoting appetite, humulene has been known to be an appetite suppressant.

α-Bisabolol

α-Bisabolol is found in lavender, and rosemary.  It is also a causal factor in the smell of chamomile.

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